I am going to attempt to answer several readers comms questions over the next few weeks by giving an explanation of my current HF setup for local to mid distance comms.
I use a digital software, RMS Express (part of the WINMOR package) in conjunction with a certain antenna system, HF transceiver, 12 volt power supply, a PC, tuner and a modem. This setup allows for reliable HF communications from 0 out to about 300 miles, across the wildly varied terrain of the Southern Appalachian mountains and adjoining foothills. This system will pretty much give me coverage in all of the valleys and ridges in my area. Try that with a VHF/UHF system even if you have repeaters. My current setup requires no external infrastructure outside of a 12 volt car battery and a way to keep it charged. I can use my car charging system, home solar system or a man-portable solar system depending on which rig I use; my base station or my tiny man-portable system.
First, you have to have your General or higher Amateur Radio License to access the frequencies you will need to make this work. If you are thinking that you and your buddies will put this system together after SHTF and start talking, then you are delusional. The group I routinely make comms with all hold General and Extra Amateur licenses and it still took about 3 months for us to work the bugs out. If you think that you can pirate the frequencies to test and maintain your system you are even more delusional. The “Ham Nazis” will catch you and turn you over to the FCC. They will look up your bogus call sign on the internet and DF your location just for sport (look up “foxhound”). And rightly so. They took the time and expense to study and pass the test. It’s not that hard. Now that we have again beaten the proverbial dead horse regarding licenses (much like Mosby and PT) lets get on to the equipment.
The antenna I currently use, and have a lot of success with is the Buckmaster 300 watt, 7 band OCF antenna.
I chose this antenna for several reasons.
Being a offset center fed (OCF) antenna (45′ on one side, 90 on the other, total of 135′) allowed me to physically locate the feed point of the antenna closer to my radio room with a shorter lead in RG-8 coax, about 30′ long. I had less room to fit the antenna along one side of the building than the other.
The antenna is resonant on nearly every band I use, it always tunes up quickly, doesn’t require a tuner (I still use one) and, if properly installed, has very little VSWR. Some radio guy will me write to say “My such-and-such antenna works better and costs less. Great, send the info. on it. The Buckmaster has worked great for me for years now. Dodge, Chevy, Ford, whatever…..
If you are interested in working down in the 160 meter band (which I am for reasons I won’t go into here) then go for the Buckmaster 8 band antenna. Just remember you will need approximately 270′ of space, or nearly a football field. And, you will most likely need a tuner for 160 meters.
On their website, Buckmaster shows the antenna slung up higher at the mid-point than at the ends. That is correct if you intend to make HF comms like most Ham operators, as long-haul as possible. I, however, want to make comms that will fill in the area between the ground wave and the sky wave. The dreaded “Skip Zone”. If I want to make long-haul comms, I will raise the center rope.
Here is a link that describes the skip zone: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skip_zone Pay particular interest in the words “vertical incident”.
Since most of the folks I want to talk to are in my region (Meat Space Folks) I need a technique that overcomes the skip zone. That technique is Near Vertical Incident Skywave or NVIS. Yet another link if you have the time:
Bottom line for me and most of the folks I talk with: we have our antennas generally about 12′ off of the ground for the entire length of the antenna. Once you are on the air, you can adjust it up or down and see what happens.
Some folks will say it is a more efficient use of RF power to build an antenna for the center freq you are using in each band and use a tuner. That is true, however, if you work off of a Signal Operating Instruction (SOI) that says to change your frequency twice a day, every day (60 total for each band per month), then the multi-freq antenna becomes more desirable.
My antenna is attached to trees using Dacron UV resistant ropes that I found at The Wireman. His link: http://www.thewireman.com/ I attached marine pulleys (also bought at Wireman), to trees at the 2 ends and center points, attached the rope to the end insulators and center balun connector, connect one end of the RG-8 coax to the balun and hosted away. Then I tied the free running ends of the ropes to fence staples at the base of the trees. You can attach strain relief to the ends of the coax for extra security.
In good SF comms tradition, I drilled a hole into the exterior wall of my radio room and fed the coax though it. I still have not foamed the hole shut. I have a friend who would be mortified if he saw my radio room. His looks like the helm of the Star Ship Enterprise. Too each his own, mine is functional, and can be torn down quickly and thrown into a couple of Pelican cases.